Family Health

  • Children’s Immunisation Schedule

    Here’s a checklist of the vaccines that are routinely offered to everyone in the UK for free on the NHS, and the age at which you should ideally have them.

    Routine childhood immunisations

    When to immunise

    Diseases protected against

    Vaccine given

    Site**

    Two months old Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) DTaP/IPV/Hib (Pediacel) Thigh
    Pneumococcal disease PCV (Prevenar 13) Thigh
    Rotavirus Rotavirus (Rotarix) By mouth
    Three months old Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Hib DTaP/IPV/Hib (Pediacel) Thigh
    Meningococcal group C disease (MenC) Men C (NeisVac-C or Menjugate) Thigh
    Rotavirus Rotavirus (Rotarix) By mouth
    Four months old Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Hib DTaP/IPV/Hib (Pediacel) Thigh
    Pneumococcal disease PCV (Prevenar 13) Thigh
    Between 12 and 13 months old – within a month of the first birthday Hib/MenC Hib/MenC (Menitorix) Upper arm/thigh
    Pneumococcal disease PCV (Prevenar 13) Upper arm/thigh
    Measles, mumpsand rubella (German measles) MMR(Priorix or MMR VaxPRO) Upper arm/thigh
    Three years four months old or soon after Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio dTaP/IPV (Repevax) or DTaP/IPV(Infanrix-IPV) Upper arm
    Measles, mumpsand rubella MMR (Priorix or MMR VaxPRO)(check first dose has been given) Upper arm

    Please note

    ** Where two or more injections are required at once, these should ideally be given in different limbs. Where this is not possible, injections in the same limb should be given 2.5cm apart.

    Immunisations for at-risk children

    When to immunise

    Diseases protected against

    Vaccine given

    Site

    At birth, 1 month old, 2 months old and 12 months old Hepatitis B Hep B Thigh
    At birth Tuberculosis BCG Upper arm (intradermal)

    Childrens Health

    There is a good guide on the NHS website which describes various conditions affecting children. There is advice on how to diagnose them, how to treat them and if further advice should be consulted.

    NHS childhood illness slideshow


    When Should I Worry?

    Having an ill child can be a very scary experience for parents. If you understand more about the illness it can help you to feel more in control. This booklet is for parents (and older children) and deals with common infections in children who are normally healthy.

    Download the booklet


    NHS Choices Conditions and Treatments

    See the NHS Choices Conditions and Treatments browser for an in-depth description of many common health issues.


    These links all come from trusted resources but if you are unsure about these or any other medical matters please contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice

  • Routine childhood immunisations

    Girls aged 12 to 13 years old Cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 (and genital warts caused by types 6 and 11) HPV (Gardasil) Upper arm
    Around 14 years old Tetanus, diphtheria and polio Td/IPV (Revaxis), and check MMR status Upper arm
    Meningitis C (Meningitec, Menjugate or NeisVac-C) Upper arm

    Please note

    ** Where two or more injections are required at once, these should ideally be given in different limbs. Where this is not possible, injections in the same limb should be given 2.5cm apart.

    The Meningitis C vaccination will be introduced during the 2013/14 academic year and the vaccine supplied will depend on the brands available at the time of ordering


    When Should I Worry?

    Having an ill child can be a very scary experience for parents. If you understand more about the illness it can help you to feel more in control. This booklet is for parents (and older children) and deals with common infections in children who are normally healthy.

    Download the booklet

    There is a good guide on the NHS website which describes various conditions affecting children. There is advice on how to diagnose them, how to treat them and if further advice should be consulted.

    NHS childhood illness slideshow


    Fevers

    Most symptoms of a fever in young children can be managed at home with infant paracetamol. If the fever is very high, they may have an infection that needs treating with antibiotics.


    Head Lice

    Head lice are insects that live on the scalp and neck. They may make your head feel itchy. Although head lice may be embarrassing and sometimes uncomfortable, they don’t usually cause illness. However, they won’t clear up on their own and you need to treat them promptly


    Nosebleeds

    Nosebleeds (also known as epistaxis) are fairly common, especially in children, and can generally be easily treated.


    NHS Choices Conditions and Treatments

    See the NHS Choices Conditions and Treatments browser for an in-depth description of many common health issues.

    These links all come from trusted resources but if you are unsure about these or any other medical matters please contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice

  • Mens’ Health

    Five health symptoms men should not ignore:

    “British men are paying the price for neglecting their health: more than 100,000 men a year die prematurely.

    On average, men go to their GP half as often as women. It’s important to be aware of changes to your health, and to see your GP immediately if you notice something that’s not right.” Find out more


    Prostate Cancer

    Each year about 36,000 men in the UK are diagnosed with prostate cancer, making it the most common cancer in men. It mainly affects men aged over 50.

    Symptoms

    • difficulty in starting to pass urine
    • a weak, sometimes intermittent flow of urine
    • dribbling of urine before and after urinating
    • a frequent or urgent need to pass urine
    • rarely, blood in your urine or semen and pain when passing urine

    These symptoms aren’t always caused by prostate cancer but if you have them, see your GP.

    Find out more about the symptoms, causes and diagnosis of prostate cancer by using the resources below.

    Resources

    BUPA – Prostate Cancer

    NHS Choices – Prostate Cancer


    Testicular Cancer

    Testicular cancer, though the most common cancer in young men, it is still quite rare. With 2000 new cases being diagnosed each year, this makes it the biggest cause of cancer related death in 15 – 35-year-old males. It accounts for around 70 deaths a year within the UK alone.

    What to Look Out For

    The most common symptom of testicular cancer is swelling or a pea-sized lump in one of the testes (balls). There is no current screening test therefore it is important that you look out for the following signs and symptoms.

    • A dull ache, or sharp pain, in your testicles, or scrotum, which may come and go
    • A feeling of heaviness in your scrotum
    • A dull ache in your lower abdomen
    • A sudden collection of fluid in your scrotum
    • Fatigue, and generally feeling unwell.

    Resources

    NHS – Information on Testicular Cancer

    BUPA – Testicular Cancer


    Sexual Problems

    It’s estimated that one man in 10 has a problem related to having sex, such as premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction. Dr John Tomlinson of The Sexual Advice Association explains some of the causes, and where to seek help.

    Find our more on NHS Choices


    NHS Choices Conditions and Treatments

    See the NHS Choices Conditions and Treatments browser for an in-depth description of many common health issues.

  • Cervical Screening (Smear Tests)

    Cervical screening is a method of preventing cervical cancer by detecting abnormal cells in the cervix (lower part of the womb). Cervical screening is not a test for cancer, but it is a test to check the health of the cervix.

    Most women’s test results show that everything is normal. But for one in 20 women, the test will show some changes in the cells of the cervix. Most of these changes will not lead to cervical cancer and the cells will go back to normal on their own. In some cases, the abnormal cells need to be treated to prevent them becoming a problem later.

    NHS Choices – Cervical Screening
    The why, when & how guide to cervical screening

    NHS Inform (Scottish Patients)
    Cervical Screening information, risks, benefits and tests for patients based in Scotland

    Cervical Screening
    This factsheet is for women who would like information about having a cervical smear test for screening. This means having the test when you don’t have any symptoms.


    HPV Vaccination

    Since September 2008 there has been a national programme to vaccinate girls aged 12-13 against human papilloma virus (HPV). There is also a three-year catch up campaign that will offer the HPV vaccine (also known as the cervical cancer jab) to 13-18 year old girls.

    The programme is delivered largely through secondary schools, and consists of three injections that are given over a six-month period. In the UK, more than 1.4 million doses have been given since the vaccination programme started.

    What is Human papilloma virus (HPV)?
    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the name of a family of viruses that affect the skin and the moist membranes that line your body, such as those in your cervix, anus, mouth and throat. These membranes are called the mucosa.

    There are more than 100 different types of HPV viruses, with about 40 types affecting the genital area. These are classed as high risk and low risk.How you get HPV?
    Types of HPV that affect the skin can be passed on by skin contact with an affected person. The types of HPV that affect the mouth and throat can be passed on through kissing. Genital HPV is usually spread through intimate, skin to skin, contact during sex. You can have the genital HPV virus for years and not have any sign of it.

    How HPV can cause cervical cancer?
    Most HPV infections are harmless or cause genital warts, however some types can cause cervical cancer. Most HPV infections clear up by themselves, but in some people the infection can last a long time. HPV infects the cells of the surface of the cervix where it can stay for many years without you knowing.

    The HPV virus can damage these cells leading to changes in their appearance. Over time, these changes can develop into cervical cancer. The purpose of cervical screening (testing) is to detect these changes, which, if picked up early enough, can be treated to prevent cancer happening. If they are left untreated, cancer can develop and may lead to serious illness and death.

    Cancer Research UK
    HPV Facts and information

    NHS Choices – HPV Vaccination
    Why, how and when is the vaccination given and what are the side effects

    HPV Vaccine
    This factsheet is for people who would like information about the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine.


    Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK. About 46,000 women get breast cancer in the UK each year. Most of them (8 out of 10) are over 50, but younger women, and in rare cases men, can also get breast cancer.

    The NHS Breast Screening Programme invites over 2 million women for screening every year, and detects over 14,000 cancers. Dr Emma Pennery of Breast Cancer Care says: “Breast X-rays, called mammograms, can detect tumours at a very early stage, before you’d feel a lump. The earlier it’s treated, the higher the survival rate.”

    Find out more about breast cancer screening

    Macmillan Cancer Research
    The causes and symptoms of breast cancer in women and explains how it is diagnosed and treated

    NHS Choices
    Symtpoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention & screening information


    NHS Choices Conditions and Treatments

    See the NHS Choices Conditions and Treatments browser for an in-depth description of many common health issues.


    These links all come from trusted resources but if you are unsure about these or any other medical matters please contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice

  • Seasonal Flu Vaccination

    Influenza – flu – is a highly infectious and potentially serious illness caused by influenza viruses. Each year the make-up of the seasonal flu vaccine is designed to protect against the influenza viruses that the World Health Organization decide are most likely to be circulating in the coming winter.

    Regular immunisation (vaccination) is given free of charge to the following at-risk people, to protect them from seasonal flu:

    • people aged 65 or over,
    • people with a serious medical condition
    • if you are pregnant
    • people living in a residential or nursing home
    • the main carers for an elderly or disabled person whose welfare may be at risk if the carer becomes ill
    • healthcare or social care professionals directly involved in patient care

    For more information on flu immunisation, including background information on the vaccine and how you can get the jab, see Seasonal flu jab

    HPA – Season Flu Guide

    Seasonal Flu Factsheet


    Eating Well & Exercise – helping you maintain a healthy body

    We’re bombarded with scare stories about weight, from size zero to the obesity ‘epidemic’. But a healthy body is determined by different factors for each of us.

    NHS – Good Food Guide
    Information on a healthy diet and ways to make it work for you

    NHS – Why be active?
    Even a little bit of exercise will make you feel better about yourself, boost your confidence and cut your risk of developing a serious illness.


    These links all come from trusted resources but if you are unsure about these or any other medical matters please contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.

  • Sexual Health

    Both men and women need to look after their sexual health and take time to understand the issues that surround contraception and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

    For instance there are some STIs, like chlamydia, that you could be carrying without having any symptoms. This infection can affect fertility, so it’s important to make use of the sexual health services available for free on the NHS.

    Useful Resources:

    Sex & Young People
    A comprehensive guide to the questions you may have about sex from the NHS

    Sexually Transmitted Infections
    Issues, symptoms and treatments

    Sexual Health FAQs
    Expert answers from a qualified Doctor

    Netdoctor
    Here you’ll find tips for a fulfilling sex life plus advice on STDs, contraception and common sex problems.

    FPA – The Sexual Health Charity
    Sexual health advice and information on contraception, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy choices, abortion and planning a pregnancy.


    Contraception

    There are so many different types of contraception available that you should be able to find the right method. You may have to try several different things before you choose the one you like most.

    Types of contraception Where do you get contraception?

    Useful Resources

    NetDoctor
    A Family Planning specialist writes about the different types of contraception, the benefits and pitfalls and how effective they are

    Contraception – NHS Choices
    Information on Contraception from NHS Choices including why, when and how it should be used and with links to other useful resources.

    Hormonal Contraception
    This factsheet is for women who are taking hormonal contraceptives, or who would like information about them.


    Chlamydia

    Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection among under-25s. Often there are no symptoms, but testing and treatment are simple.

    Causes and risk factors Chlamydia is usually passed from one person to another during vaginal, oral or anal sex, or by sharing sex toys. It can live inside cells of the cervix, urethra, rectum and sometimes in the throat and eyes.

    Useful Links

    NHS Choices – focus on Chlamydia
    Information, videos and advice from the NHS website

    Chlamydia
    This factsheet is for people who have chlamydia, or who would like information about it.


    These links all come from trusted resources but if you are unsure about these or any other medical matters please contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice